A few years ago, in many cities of the Russian Federation, the part of the road landscape was used buses of European brands. But today only rare long-livers remained on urban and suburban routes.
Our channel decided to find out the picture of the country’s bus market. And give an answer to the question of where European buses disappeared?
In the distant 90s, the domestic bus construction shocked the most powerful crisis. Municipalities of Russian cities, in one moment turned out to be insolvent. In addition, on the main supplier of domestic engines for bus factories, emergency was happening — the Kamaz engines plant burned down. To equip buses of domestic marks turned out to be nothing. All the production has burned out.
From the situation they tried to be released in different ways. From numerous auto repair factories (ARZ), the bus manufacturing was increased, which began the issue of fairly obsolete liazov. A number of Russian cities have fallen into the program of the World Bank, whose loans were purchased in Yekaterinburg hundreds of buses «IKARUS-283», who have disappeared the acute problems of urban traffic. In Omsk, at the same time bought from this bank Caosa buses «Karos». Rich Moscow at the Tushin Machine-Building Plant organized an assembly of Hungarian buses Ikarus of the 400th series. But these were single successful examples.
Used buses from Europe helped to solve the transport problem of Russian cities. The 10-15-20th anniversary of Man, Volvo, Scania, Ajokki, Van Hool, Mercedes-Benz, Setra, etc. came out on urban routes.
This technique turned out to be strong and reliable. Buses worked not yet one decade on urban routes. Moreover, Eurobuses «conquered» both medium and small cities and played their crucial role in the permission of transportation in large cities. And geographically, this technique can still meet from Krasnoyarsk to Smolensk. And the bus fleets of such millionniks, as Perm, Krasnoyarsk, Novosibirsk and a number of other for a long time consisted of used eurobius. In fact, the European technique pulled the process of urban transport from the coma, in which they could be in the crisis period.
Especially our carriers in the souls were used by the Used German technique — Mercedes-Benz O305 and MAN SL200. They were largely unified and here as it turned out. The German Public Transport Association (Germany), when the Federal Law on Transport was received by the West German Bundestag in 1966, put forward the design and creation initiative to design and create a unified urban bus. Since the unification helped enterprises of different lands and districts by the convenience of repair and maintenance. The project itself was called Standard-Linienbus-I («standard urban bus of the first generation»). As a result, a bus with regulated parameters was designed: Length 11 m, wheelbase 5.6 m, gender height 725 mm. Two two-section doors of 1250 mm wide with a pneumatic receipt were provided. The driver’s workplace, as well as the size of the windows, the arrangement scheme (2 + 2 for suburban and 2 + 1 for urban). But here the choice of the power unit and the gearbox remained behind the manufacturer. Also behind the manufacturer, the choice of anterior mask was left, but stipulated that the windshield should have been separate. It was these buses to soul to our drivers and left good glory about themselves from passengers.
Later, in the past years, some municipalities tried to buy new import buses from Europe. Today, even in Vladivostok on the city route network, you can meet new low-profil MAN Lion. But significantly more new «Europeans» on long-distance routes appeared. And it was a wonderful choice, since such cars were reliable, unpretentious for exploiting enterprises, and for passengers comfortable. All would be good, but here the policy intervened. And the picture of the market has changed much.
As for European b / y, the time does its job. They gradually go down in history. Today they are not so much on the streets of our cities. The era of Eurobius leaves. She replaced another era, other buses, which we will tell.
Priority for mine
Domestic buses manufacturers are still in a special mode of operation. The fact is that after the Crimean events and the introduction by Western countries of economic sanctions, the response of the Russian authorities was unexpected. A bet on import substitution was formulated. And already on July 14, 2014, the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 656 appeared on the establishment of a ban on the admission of certain types of mechanical engineering goods originating from foreign countries for procurement purposes to provide state and municipal needs. In this document, the mobile composition of urban passenger transport — trams, trolley buses and buses hit the country. It became for the passenger engineering market with the moment of truth. The government ruling stopped the strength of foreign passenger technology, but not all. As we remember, the Polish trams «Pesa» and French «Alstom» appeared in Moscow. And in the bus parks of municipal and private carriers, every year grew the number of buses from the PRC and Europe. However, after 2014, this «import wave» was tamed. But not all. And the statistics provided to us by the ACM Holding testifies to this.
Top 25 new buses in the Russian Federation in 2019
Looking for statistics is always asked by the same question. Why from year to year buses of small class of brand groove occupy the highest positions on sales among all types of bus equipment? For more than a quarter of a century, the Russian pedestal belongs to the antediluvian PAZ-3205. The bus created by the time of the USSR, on the aggregates of the gas-53 truck. This bus has long been time in history. But no, he gained the status of a long-liver. His element is a suburban message, routes in rural areas and, as not regrettable, intracity routes with low passenger traffic. It is difficult to predict today when this model is overthrown from the leadership and will be removed from the model range of Pavlovsky bus factory. The specifics of our country are not amenable to any forecasting. True, «on the heels» there comes a more modern model of Paz-3204 Vektor.
Semi- and low-bodies come
In the segment of urban passenger buses, leadership holds
In second place in the city buses segment LOCAL MODEL
However, near Moscow enterprises from Likino-Dulyovo at today the lowest proposal of the urban model has become a semi-inflexive Liaz-5293. His target audience is poor enterprises of private carriers. The model was a little warned, put on a new front mask. But for now the sales of the semi-lingopoly Liaz-5293 Nevaznetsky. The model takes the 22nd place in the overall standings, and the sales volume did not exceed one hundred pieces.
It is gratifying to note that LiAZ, consider, the only bus in the country, which showed the good sales of the High Organic. The Liaz-6213 bus «with harmonica» was built within the framework of the capital order.
The Belarusian manufacturer of MAZ in the Russian Federation are affected by Nevjnetski. For the first time, a bus of the middle class MAZ-206 is best for the first time. Although in the annual reports in past years, city buses of large capacity (MAZ-103 and MAZ-203) were leading. And here we come to the most interesting.
In the neighboring market of freight commercial cars, as not strange, the sale of trucks and dump trucks produced in the PRC are growing. That it is quite logical — the money from buyers is becoming smaller … In the market of passenger technology, the situation with buses from the Middle Kingdom is somewhat different.
The fact is that domestic automakers consciously or, most likely, unconsciously, «worked» the segment of the tourist class buses.
Models of tourist class buses in the rules of domestic auto plants are available — at the Likinsky plant the Cruise model on the SCANIA chassis, as well as the Liaz-5256 tourist class. Nephahas also has a model 5299 for intergrades. And Volgograd «Volgobas» has a similar model «52701». Minsk plant presents the MAZ-251 model.
However, for some reason, our long-distance carriers prefer to bet on Chinese passenger equipment.
The most important Chinese tourist class bus YUTONG 6119. Attention! Seventh place in the ranking of passenger technology of the Russian Federation. With more than a two-time margin from him another Chinese model — Higer Klq. Further on the list — Zhongtong LCK, Yutong 6899, Kinglong XMQ, etc.
Chinese buses found a loose niche at the car market of Russia and feel good here. Why this niche still did not occupy domestic haulage? Mystery. As we see, there are no European models in the ranking of the bus market of the Russian Federation. The devaluation of the currency did its job.